Left to right: Sniff, Snufkin, Moominpappa, Moominmamma, Moomintroll, Mymble, Groke, Snork Maiden, Hattifatteners

In America, children generally do not grow up with Tove Jansson’s Moomins as part of their childhood. Why is this? In other parts of the world, the Moomins are well-known and loved. There have been several animated television series made in countries as different as Japan, Sweden, and even the Soviet Union. There’s an amusement park in Finland. There are picture books, chapter books, and a comic strip. And there’s every imaginable product, as I learned a few weeks ago at Helsinki airport’s Moomin Store.

Moomin figurines at Moomin Store, Helsinki airport

Karin and I talked about this last night, and here are a few thoughts why people (of any nationality) should read the books, and perhaps why they have not caught on as well in the States as they have in other countries.  Following that, a few basic facts about the series and their creator.

1) Fun and philosophical.  Like A. A. Milne and E.H. Shepherd’s Winnie the Pooh books, Jansson’s Moomin books feature visually appealing characters with a gently philosophical turn of mind. Generally speaking, the Moomins look like a cross between Winnie-the-Pooh and a hippo (but a cuddly one). They grapple with such questions as whether mother still loves us, finding one’s home and family in the face of natural disaster, how we mourn the dead, and whether there will be enough jam for the pancakes.  And, as the last item on my list indicates, Jansson tackles big ideas with a light touch. The books are warm, funny, and generous of heart.

Moominmamma, Moominpappa, Moomintroll, Snork Maiden

2) The books are about community. They’re about more than just the Moomin family; they’re about others who live in (or just happen to be passing through) Moominvalley. There are the members of the gently bohemian Moomin family: Moominmamma, Moominpappa, Moomintroll. There’s the Snork Maiden, Moomintroll’s on-again/off-again girlfriend; her brother, the Snork; Snufkin, traveler, troubadour, and Moomintroll’s best friend; Little My, a strong-willed, mischievous, independent Mymble; and Sniff, a capitalist version of Piglet, and friend of Moomintroll’s. There are also Thingumy and Bob, small creatures who speak in Spoonerisms; the Niblings, hungry creatures who enjoy educational games; and many more. Moomin fans will fault me for neglecting the Hemulens, Fillyjonk, Too-Ticky, the Hattifattners, the Groke, and so on. But the point here is that the Moomins are the glue that hold the community together.

3) The Moomins want to live life on their own terms – though not at the expense of others.  They’re individuals, but not selfish. Community is important, but so is pursuing one’s own dreams. On a related note, I also love the fact that they hibernate during the long, cold Scandinavian winters – a fact which motivates the plot for Moominland Midwinter (1958). One winter, Moomintroll wakes up, and decides that he wants to experience the season.

Moomintroll in Tove Jansson's Moominland Midwinter

4) Where to start? If you haven’t read the Moomin stories, you need to. But where do you begin? In English translation, there are 9 chapter books, 3 picture books, and 6 volumes (and counting) of the Moomin comic strip.  I recommend starting with Finn Family Moomintroll (first published in the US as The Happy Moomins, 1952) or Moominsummer Madness (1955).  Though not the first two books in the series, they offer the strongest introduction.  Purists may want to start with Comet in Moominland (1951) or even The Moomins and the Great Flood, the very first book (though the last translated into English, probably because it omits most major characters). As an alternate choice, Drawn & Quarterly’s beautiful collections of the Moomin comic strip offer a great introduction. The strip can be a bit more topical and more surreal, but it also provides more of Jansson’s art, which is always a pleasure.

Tove Jansson, Finn Family Moomintroll (current edition)
Tove Jansson, Moominsummer Madness (current edition)

5) Wait. What are all the books, again?

The chapter books:

  1. The Moomins and the Great Flood (English translation, 2005). Translation of Småtrollen och den stora översvämningen (1945).
  2. Comet in Moominland (1951). Translation of Kometjakten (1946).
  3. Finn Family Moomintroll (1952). Translation of Trollkarlens hatt (1948).
  4. Moominsummer Madness (1955). Translation of Farlig Midsommar (1954).
  5. Moominland Midwinter (1958). Translation of Trollvinter (1957).
  6. Moominpappa’s Memoirs (1969). Translation of Muminpappans memoarer (1968), itself a revision of Muminpappans Bravader Skrivna av Honom Själv (1950), which first appeared in English as The Exploits of Moominpappa (1966).  In order of initial publication, this ought to go earlier, I know.  I put it here because it offers a history of the parents’ generation, and that’s more meaningful if you already know the stories of the younger generation (Moomintroll et al).
  7. Tales from Moominvalley (1963).  Translation of Det osynliga barnet (1962).  Short stories.
  8. Moominpappa at Sea (1966).  Translation of Pappan och havet (1965).  A book about loneliness and displacement, in which the usually reliable Moominmamma begins to come unraveled.
  9. Moominvalley in November (1971). Translation of Sent i november (1971). A Moomin book without Moomins: the other characters arrive at the Moomins’ house and figure out how to cope without them.

These last two Moomin chapter books are darker, more existential.  I would not recommend starting with these.

Tove Jansson, The Book About Moomin, Mymble, and Little My (translated by Sophie Hannah, 2009)The picture books:

There are actually five, but only three have been translated into English.

  1. The Book About Moomin, Mymble and Little My. I recommend the new translation by Sophie Hannah (2009).  First published as Hur gick det sen? (1952), which actually means What happens next? The most visually & technically innovative of Jansson’s picture books.
  2. Who Will Comfort Toffle? Sophie Hannah’s translation (2003) is again great. First published as Vem ska trösta knyttet (1960).
  3. The Dangerous Journey.  Another fine translation by Sophie Hannah (2010).  First published as Den farliga resan (1977).

The comics: Drawn & Quarterly have been republishing these, which were started by Tove and later taken over by her brother Lars. (By volume 6, it’s all Lars.)

6) What language were they published in, originally?

Though Tove Jansson (1914-2001) was Finnish, she was part of that nation’s Swedish-speaking minority. She wrote the books in Swedish. The books have been published in all major languages.

7) What are “Moomins” called in Finnish?


8) And in Swedish?


Tove Jansson, in 19569) How do you pronounce Tove Jansson?

“Toe-vuh Yon-sun,” with the accent on the first syllable in each word. For many years, I pronounced her first name as if it rhymed with “stove,” and her surname as if the “J” were hard. Then, I heard her niece, Sophia Jansson – who, as readers of Tove Jansson’s The Summer Book know, was very close to her aunt – talk about the Moomins and Tove.  And I realized how wrong I was.  So, to say it correctly, think Swedish and say “Toe-vuh Yon-sun.”

10) Where can I learn more?





  1. Reply

    Thank you for this. I discovered the Moomin books when I was a child, and they made me want to write. I was fortunate enough to befriend Tove later in life, and she was a kind and generous person with an endless imagination. I encourage readers to also seek out her wonderful books for adult readers, a handful of which have been published in the UK in recent years and are available on Amazon UK.

  2. Reply

    Thanks for your comment! The late Moomin books are a bit more adult, too. Of the non-Moomin adult books, I’ve only read her The Summer Book, though I have a copy of True Deceiver. I wish someone would translate one of the biographies of Jansson into English (there’s at least one bio., and may be more than one).

  3. Mike Ford


    True Deceiver is a wee bit dark and all-around fantastic. It reminds me of Moominvalley in November. And The Summer Book is gorgeous. You can now also get Travelling Light, A Winter Book, Art in Nature, and Fair Play. Years ago someone released her novel Sun City as well, but that isn’t among the group of recent rereleases. It’s unusual for her in that it’s set in the US, at a retirement home. Why no one has rereleased her autobiography The Sculptor’s Daughter is beyond me. Years ago Tove sent me a poor photocopy of that book (I was an editor then, and trying to get the house I worked for to bring her back into print), and I would love to see it done.

  4. Reply

    I’ve seen (but do not own) A Winter Book and I know about The Sculptor’s Daughter. I even have Jansson’s edition of Alice, which has recently been issued with Carroll’s English text (I have the Swedish version, Alice I Underlandet, published 1966).

    But I’d never even heard of Travelling Light, Art in Nature, or Fair Play! Thanks for the recommendations!

    Final thought: there must be some sort of grant that could pay for a translator to bring out some more of her works in English….

  5. Reply

    Oh yes! The Moomin books are lovely. We were fortunate to have one of those ‘everything Swedish’ stores nearby, in Estes Park, CO, years ago, and I was able to grab a few Moomin books for my kids before the store closed. This is a wonderful post! Thanks for reminding me to read them again, and look for more of her books.

  6. Catherine Keyte


    Thank you for providing this informative site. Just tonight I had the fortune of catching a documentary on the tv about the life of Tove Jannsen and her Moomins. It brought back memories of the delight I felt when reading her stories as a child. Un fortunately, I cannot recall the actual content, only the memory of enjoying them immensely and am now looking forward to getting my hands on copies of all her works to enjoy once again as an adult. I was particularly captivated by Tove herself and very much want to read her adult works which she wrote later in her life.

    Your site has added pockets of interesting info for me right now – thanks

    Cathie Keyte

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  8. Jenni Sjolund


    Hello, I’m currently doing research for my undergraduate dissertation, and would really appreciate a couple of minutes of your time for filling in a questionnaire about the MOOMINS :) The link for the questionnaire:

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  11. anka what


    it is 2016. I can see that conversation about Moomins has died about 3 years ago. What has happened? The idea of making a Disney version and ruining the magic perhaps? … I am not actually sure why I am writing it and to whom.
    I detest social media, but doing just the same stupidly. The thing I am against. Call it compulsion. Moomins were a part of my childhood. I spent years reproducing their world in Plasticine, recreating invisible maps of their existence. The clouds made of egg shells were impossible to make, but I could close my eyes and dream them up. As the child. Back in Europe. Now I live in Australia. Where when I mention Tove Jansson and her creations > nobody knows what I am talking about. … Only Once! about 20 years ago, I came across some Comic Book (!!!) featuring those characters.NO need to comment. Anyway, I have no idea why I am saying those things. Maybe just reaching out to other people who have immersed themselves in that magic world? Or maybe > seriously now: is there anybody out there who has a Full Edition of all books. In English. With genuine illustrations. Amazon has nothing. … Yes, I did get a bit sentimental for very good reasons. Embarrassed about the above but, HEY!!! once you experience a pure magic, u will never forget it.

  12. Lidia


    Thank you , everybody, so much!!!
    I am a Russian teacher of English. Three months ago I offered to my Finnish colleagues to do a joint project on Mummins’ book with our pupils , to read some chapter in English, in Finnish, in Swedish and in Russian.I am sure it can be interesting. unfortunately, I found out that the books are not translated into English, only some parts. So , we are going to read and act out only some parts.
    Thank you for some ideas.

  13. / Lamees Tayyib


    Thank you for the beautiful introduction, I was only passingly familiar with the anime series, I want to read the books, thank you for the recommended order!

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