Created Equal: The Planned Integrated Community of Village Creek, Conn.

Village Creek: Shelley Shaw and Ellen Dewhirst, 1960For America’s Independence Day, here’s a little-known chapter in the history of American anti-racism. Following the Second World War, progressives founded a dozen planned integrated communities across the country. While working on my biography of Crockett Johnson and Ruth Krauss, I learned about one of those communities – a section of Norwalk Connecticut directly adjacent to where Johnson and Krauss lived, and where they both had several friends. Its name is Village Creek. It was and is a fully integrated community. Here’s how it began.

In 1948, city planner Roger Willcox was looking for a home within commuting distance from New York. He and about thirty other people, most of whom were veterans and sailors, wanted waterfront property where they could raise their families and go sailing. As Willcox recalled, when discussing the kind of community they would like to have, they decided that “one of the basic principles” was that there should be “no discrimination because of race, creed or color. The world is made of all colors, creeds, and if we’re going to build a community that we want families to grow up in, and have it recognized in the world, it ought to represent the kinds of people who live in the world.”1 In July of 1949, when they bought the land just across the creek – Village Creek – that would become the Village Creek cooperative neighborhood, they drew up a covenant prohibiting discrimination “on account of race, color, religious creed, age, sex, national origin, ancestry or physical disability.”2

Village Creek: map of lots, 1952

To ensure that it would remain an interracial community, the rules of the Village Creek Home Owners Association specified that Village Creek had to be one third black-owned and two-thirds white owned. To keep the ratio intact, anyone wishing to sell their property had to sell it back to the community. When one of the former residents told me about this ratio, I thought, “Ahh, they’re keeping it two thirds white to placate the whites in the surrounding community.” He said, no, “if we didn’t have this covenant, then if anybody wanted to sell, the real estate agents would immediately go to a black family and say you can move in here because there’s a lot of black people living here. And, of course, then it would start to become a black community. The whites would move out.” And the whole point was to keep it integrated.3

Village Creek: children playing, 1953 or 1954

At the time, integrated communities such as Village Creek were virtually unheard-of: this was the first in Connecticut, and, at the same time it was founded, across the United States veterans with similar goals were creating eleven other co-operative communities – some integrated, some simply co-operatives. Although Johnson and Krauss approved of Village Creek (and likely would have bought there if it existed when they moved to Connecticut), many Norwalk residents were suspicious. Detractors called it “Commie Creek” and claimed that the houses’ roofs were designed to guide Soviet bombers to New York City.4 But Village Creekers united against such adversity. When local banks refused to underwrite mortgages on Village Creek homes, Village Creek property owners either built their houses themselves or sought mortgages from New York City banks. When real estate agents would not show Village Creek houses to white families, Village Creekers helped sell houses by word of mouth.5

Although it was not “Commie Creek,” Village Creek did attract many progressive residents. Philip Oppenheimer, one of Village Creek’s founding members, met other founding members through their mutual support of Henry Wallace’s 1948 presidential campaign.6 Some other early residents included Doxey Wilkerson, African-American professor of Education and Daily Worker columnist; Frank Donner, civil liberties attorney, AFL-CIO lawyer, and active critic of Anti-Communist witch hunts; and Antonio Frasconi and Leona Pierce, artists who (along with their two children, Pablo and Miguel) would become friends of Johnson’s and Krauss’s.

Village Creek: Leona Pierce, Antonio Frasconi, Yolanda and Doxey Wilkerson, 1987

When Village Creek parents wanted to set up a cooperative nursery school for their children, they asked Norma Simon to help her do it. Norma – whose students inspired Krauss’s A Very Special House – and her husband Ed had moved up to the area in 1952. She had attended the Bank Street School, and by 1952 was teaching at the Thomas School in Rowayton. Norma Simon, with the help of her husband and Village Creek parents, transformed the basement of Martin and Sylvia Garment into the Community Cooperative Nursery School – which would become another place where Ruth Krauss would visit, talk with children, listen to children, make notes, and transform their ideas into children’s books. Founded on Bank Street principles, the Community Cooperative Nursery School was a progressive nursery school; enrolling the children of Village Creek, it had black children, white children, and children of many nationalities. Suspicious of its liberal founders, detractors dubbed it “the Little Red Schoolhouse.”7

In a way, this was hardly surprising, since such detractors also thought that all Village Creekers must be Communists, and even went so far as to say that the modern architecture of Village Creek houses were in fact signals to enemy planes. Norma, whose first children’s book (The Wet World) was published in 1954, soon discovered that her association with “the Little Red Schoolhouse” led to an unofficial blacklist: a PTA would invite her to speak, discover that she was director of the school, and, instead of accusing her directly, would then phone up to say, sorry, but the meeting had been cancelled, no need to come.8

That’s a bit of Village Creek’s early history, most of which had to be cut from my biography, Crockett Johnson and Ruth Krauss: How an Unlikely Couple Found Love, Dodged the FBI, and Transformed Children’s Literature (2012). To the best of my knowledge, no one has written about these post-war utopian experiments. Here’s hoping someone reads this post and writes a full history, or a children’s book. 65 years after its founding, Village Creek is still going strong.


  1. Roger Willcox, telephone interview with the author, 26 Sept. 2004.
  2. Roger Willcox, “President’s Report: Welcome to our 50th Anniversary Celebration.” Village Creek Home Owners Association: 50th Anniversary Celebration (South Norwalk, Conn.: P.M. Ink, 2000), p. 1.
  3. Martin Garment, telephone interview with the author, 24 Sept. 2002.
  4. Philip Openheimer, [reminiscence], Village Creek Home Owners Association: 50th Anniversary Celebration. booklet. South Norwalk, Conn.: P.M. Ink, 2000. p. 13.
  5. Willcox, telephone interview with the author, 26 Sept. 2004.
  6. Openheimer, [reminiscence], Village Creek Home Owners Association: 50th Anniversary Celebration (South Norwalk, Conn.: P.M. Ink, 2000), p. 13.
  7. Norma Simon. Telephone interview with the author. 20 June 2002; Martin Garment, telephone interview, 24 Sept. 2002.
  8. Simon, telephone interview, 20 June 2002.

Further Reading

Source for photographs

Village Creek Home Owners Association: 50th Anniversary Celebration. booklet. South Norwalk, Conn.: P.M. Ink, 2000


  1. Barbara Morganstern Sammons


    I was fortunate to have grown up in Village Creek and to have know both Ruthie and Dave well. They were dear friends of my mother, Mildred Morganstern. I remember a special lunch I had with Ruthie when I was in my teens. She told me to wait to go to college – and instead to travel and explore the world first. Much to my parent’s dismay, I took her advice and did just that! Thanks to Ruthie, I adventured – bringing much greater experience and riches to my years as a teacher.

    I still have their children’s books on my shelves that I share with my grandchildren.

    Barb Sammons

  2. Doris Ruth Oppenheimer


    I too grew up in Village Creek and it was a great place to grow up. Unfortunately I do not remember meeting Ruth and Dave. Seeing there were so many talented artist and teachers living in the community.

  3. Frederick G. Yost


    I was born on the SE corner of Sable and Woodward 75 years ago and often explored what became VC, years before it was established. There are no words to express the thrill of discovery I had in the many acres of VC. In the 50’s I delivered newspapers and did yard work for many of its residents including RW. My family has a long history in what was called Smithville which is adjacent to VC and I have written 2 short stories about this neighborhood. They are entitled “A Short History of Hoyt’s Island and Smithville” and “The Kid From Smithville”. I would be delighted to send these stories to any interested person.

  4. Eva Epple


    Dear Phil, happy to read about Village Creek, which in 1969 was such an important part of my Norwalk and US experience as an exchange student from Germany. Would you please be so kind as to forward my greetings to Barb Sammons and Doris Oppenheimer. Though memories fade I remember very well walking all the way from Weed Ave.(NW Norwalk).. via Meadow St. and Woodward Ave. to VC. I wonder whether I would still find my way (probably not). Thank you a lot for your articles, Phil. Just read about Harold… Frederick Yost wrote about his two stories, I would be interested – is it possible to send them as pdf?

  5. Sheila Erbter Johnson


    My father, Edward Erbter, lived on Woodward Avenue until his marriage in 1941. His mother built the home I often visited as a child.

    I would very much appreciate reading Frederick Yost’s short stories.



  6. frederick yost


    If someone would provide email or snail mail addresses for Eva and Sheila I would gladly send them my two small books.

  7. Steve Cohen


    Hey, Eva Epple:

    Long time since I’ve seen your name! Love to hear what you’ve been up to.

  8. Pat Haggler


    Are you familiar with the book Enemies In Love by Alexis Clarke. The interracial couple that are the subject of the book moved to Village Creek, Connecticut which is how I first heard about this community.

  9. Reply

    Pat: No, this is the first time I’ve heard of that book! I see it was published in 2018. (Glad I did not overlook it when writing the biography of Johnson and Krauss, published in 2012.) Sounds like a fascinating story.

    To everyone seeking addresses or the stories of Frederick Yost: I’m afraid I don’t have that information. Sorry!

    I am, however, delighted that this humble blog post has become a space for people to share their memories.

  10. Catherine Sloane


    A black nurse during WW2 who worked in a German POW camp and fell in love with him and he with her, ended up living in this community.

    Elinor Powell and Frederick ??

  11. Tania Theresa Fredericks


    It was just earlier today that I was browsing through YouTube and saw the video of a journalist interviewing the Author of Enemies in Love. I thought what a beautiful storey. I live all the way in Cape Town South Africa. As you may know that we also come from a history of segregation and still struggling to find that equality. I think that everybody that loves freedom should adapt the attitude of the founding fathers of Village Creek.

  12. Tania Theresa Fredericks


    It was just earlier today that I was browsing through YouTube and saw the video of a journalist interviewing the Author of Enemies in Love. I thought what a beautiful storey. I live all the way in Cape Town South Africa. As you may know that we also come from a history of segregation and still struggling to find that equality. I think that everybodythat loves freedom should adapt the
    attitude of the founding fathers of Village Creek. Thanks

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