The Meaning of Life; or, How to Avoid the Midlife Crisis

Kieran Setiya, "The Midlife Crisis" (2014)Why do successes sometimes feel like failures? As philosopher Kieran Setiya points out in a wise new essay, “Our achievements, whatever they are worth, are always numbered” (10). Each time we accomplish something, it’s done, finished, and we must move on to the next thing: “the completion of your project may constitute something of value, but it means that the project can no longer give purpose to your life” (12). And so, in “pursuing a goal, you are trying to exhaust your interaction with something good, as if you were trying to make friends for the sake of saying goodbye” (12).

What’s the solution? Key, Setiya argues, is to distinguish between telic and atelic activities:

  • Telic: “Almost anything we call a ‘project’ will be telic: buying a house, starting a family, earning a promotion, getting a job. These are all things one can finish or complete” (12).
  • Atelic: “not all activities are like this. Some do not aim at a point of termination or exhaustion: a final state in which they have been achieved and there is nothing more to do. For instance,… you can go for a walk with no particular destination. Going for a walk is an ‘atelic’ activity. The same is true of hanging out with friends or family, of studying philosophy, of living a decent life. You can stop doing these things and you eventually will, but you cannot complete them in the relevant sense…. they do not have a telic character” (12-13). So, “If you are going for a walk, hanging out with friends, studying philosophy, or living a decent life, you are not on the way to achieving your end. You are already there” (13).

This, however, does not mean that one should only invest in the atelic. The issue is where you derive value: locating the majority of life’s meaning in the telic will leave you unfulfilled, and often precipitates a midlife crisis. As Setiya writes, “it is at midlife that the telic character of one’s most cherished ends are liable to appear, as they are completed or prove impossible. One has the job one has worked for many years to get, the partner one hoped to meet, the family one meant to start – or one does not. Until this point, one may have had no reason to dwell on the exhaustion of one’s ambitions” (14).

To avoid or resolve the midlife crisis, yes, you can (as Setiya puts it), “invest… more deeply in atelic ends. Among the activities that matter most to you, the ones that give meaning to your life, must be activities that have no terminal point. Since they cannot be completed, your engagement with atelic ends will not exhaust or destroy them” (15).

But you can – and should – also continue pursuing telic activities. Just pursue them for their own sake instead of for the end product: “Instead of spending time with friends in order to complete a shared project […,] one pursues a common project in order to spend time with friends” (15). As Setiya advises, “Do not work only to solve this problem or discover that truth, as if the tasks you complete are all that matter; solve the problem or seek the truth in order to be at work” (15).

Setiya’s “The Midlife Crisis” appears in Philosophers’ Imprint 14.31 (Nov. 2014), pp. 1-18. Just follow the link. As you may have guessed from my summary, I highly recommend it.

Related posts (on this blog unless otherwise noted):


  1. Marah Gubar


    I’m so delighted that you liked Kieran’s essay! This is wonderful. I am (of course) biased, but I really do find myself using the telic/atelic distinction in my own daily life– rather than feel frustrated with myself for not having finished my second book, for example, I am trying to notice how much I am enjoying working on it, and just be happy about that! Thanks for writing this wonderful post :)

  2. Reply

    Hi, Marah! Thanks very much for sharing it via FB. I otherwise would be unlikely to have encountered it.

    I’ve also experienced that odd feeling of failure when I should be feeling success — another reason that Kieran’s essay resonated with me.

    And, similar to your approach to your second book, I have deliberately not sought a contract for my current monograph project — which, as of this writing, is titled or subtitled Structures of Racism in Children’s Literature. My reason is that I don’t want the pressure of a contract. I’d rather just work on it, take the time to do it right. Because of its subject matter, I’d say the work is more satisfying than enjoyable. But there are other projects that I would classify as more purely enjoyable.

    Also, while I would very much enjoy not living in a failed state (thanks, Gov. Brownback!), I may as well enjoy the work I’m doing while I’m obliged to live here — which, for all I know, could be the rest of my life. And I’m acutely conscious that I have fewer years ahead of me than I have behind me — which, as Kieran points out, is one of the reasons that midlife may precipitate the “crisis”….

  3. Pingback: Spring break | Nan Cohen

  4. Pingback: Telic and Atelic activities.

Leave Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.